Inthe name was changed to United Services Automobile Association, when commissioned officers of other U. The company opened offices in FrankfurtGermanyand LondonEnglandearly in its history.
Functional Management It is important to comprehend the role and difference of a functional leadership and product leadership, the role of project and program management within the framework of organization structure.
A product has several components, the inner components that craft the product, the external components like sales, marketing, inventory, procurement, customer service etc.
Product leadership needs to be very well connected to their customers, since customers directly influence the requirements for the product. Functional leaders are specialists that have high technical knowledge of their area; they are the architects who design their functional component of the product.
They use their technical competency and experience to solve non-trivial problem, they are responsible for coaching and mentoring the younger staff in the organization. Functional leaders take the product vision and requirements from the product leaders, perform feasibility study and take the responsibility of mobilizing their technical core teams.
The functional design is divided into smaller projects; each project produces a deliverable that is integrated into the final product. The program management is analogous to product management, it need to track the progress of each functional unit, manage any risk that might arise due to functional interdependencies and manage customer communications.
It is the most atomic level of management; it involves managing resources, setting project goals, changing scope, setting deadlines, tracking project progress and raising risks when they occur. Project management is a process that is rooted in all management and leadership functions to the extent that it is inevitable.
Both product and functional leadership is related through program and project management. The functional leader might also be managing the projects under his team or there can be a designated project manager to do so. When there is a separate project manager position, the role for functional leader is limited to technically leading the subordinates and is disjointed from management functions.
Functional Structure In a functional structure, teams or groups are created based on common functions in a bottom-up manner.
The result is a set of functional units such as engineering, marketing, finance, human resource etc. Functional structure are the most common type of structural design and have evolved from the concept of high specialization, high control framework of manufacturing organizations tuned towards high efficiency.
Functional management is more technical oriented and less product or business oriented, while they are skilled in taking decisions in their functional areas, they are weak in the areas of product business plans, market study and product release management.
If the organization does have multiple product lines, then the functional hierarchy at lowest level does get divided along product lines, thereby creating deeper hierarchies.
Strengths of functional structure Functional structures are typically highly hierarchical; hence they inherit the properties of hierarchical structure. The functional units are managed by leaders who have in-depth knowledge and experience; they are able to control the unit very effectively.
Hence it harvests the potential of the unit without duplication of scarce resources, maximizing their utilization. This type of structure promotes career development of individuals aspiring to be technical specialists of their field in large organizations. If the organization has properly crafted performance management that promotes the visibility of individual skills, functional structure makes it easier to coach other and climb the hierarchical ladder.
Weakness of functional structure Restrictive Organizational View: Each functional unit has expertise in its own field, but lacks broader awareness about the organizations objectives or even the products. The responsibility of successfully integrating the organization lies with few top level executives, at the same time, the organizational structure limits the capabilities of the functional managers to occupy top management positions.
Thus, even though such organizations might be effective initially, being controlled by few founding members, its long term efficiency is doubtful. Functional units cannot respond to fast changes in customer demands or the product since only the top level management has broad knowledge and the decision making authority.
The management also performs the role of coordinating tasks across functional units, thus unless a complete plan of action is not formulated by the managements, little progress can be made in individual functional units. Due to weak link between product and functional units, it is hard to correlate profits of individual products to the budget and spending of individual units.
The units that offer support to other functional units, like human resource or IT department, do not contribute directly to the revenue, yet they are essential components that helps in running the organization smoothly. Functional units are effective when the organization has only few products or is small in size; the drawback of limited view of the entire organization gets negligible.
One way to test it is to try to restructure the organization from a hierarchical to horizontal, if the resulting structure is not too different, it implies that organization is inherently lacking a horizontal dimension.
Functional units are effective when the organization has routine technologies and there is less probability of emergence of competitive technology that is radically different.
Product Divisional Structure In a divisional structure, the teams are organized in set of divisions, where each division corresponds to the end product or services provided by the organization. Each division has its own set of functional units like research, manufacturing, marketing etc and is completely self-contained.
A divisional structure is less hierarchical than functional; it is formed by decomposing the functional structure along the product lines. Unlike functional management, the divisional management is more skilled along product business and lesser in core technical competencies.
Strengths of divisional structure Clear Accountability:culture. What's it like to work here? We're asked that a lot. Target respects and values the individuality of all team members and guests—and we have lots of fun in all that we do.
The term capital structure refers to the percentage of capital (money) at work in a business by type. Broadly speaking, there are two forms of capital: equity capital and debt capital.
Target Corporation: Report on Long-term Financing Policy and Capital Structure with an Acquisition Analysis Introduction This report will be based on the Target Corporation, and will consist of two sections: 1) long-term financing policy and capital structure, and 2) an acquisition analysis.
The United Services Automobile Association (USAA) is a Texas-based Fortune diversified financial services group of companies including a Texas Department of Insurance-regulated reciprocal inter-insurance exchange and subsidiaries offering banking, investing, and insurance to people and families who serve, or served, in the .
Don Liu is executive vice president and chief legal & risk officer for Target and a member of its executive leadership team. He oversees all legal, risk and compliance, corporate governance and governmental affairs matters for the company.
Interim Target CEO works to overhaul corporate structure Target Corp. interim Chief Executive Officer John Mulligan said that even before December's massive data breach, the retailer had lost its.