Stonewall RiotStonewall Inn Homophobia is an uncontrollable fear of homosexuals and Xenophobia is fear of strangers.
The term homophobia was coined in the late s and was used prominently by George Weinbergan American clinical psychologist, in his book Society and the Healthy Homosexual Although the suffix phobia generally designates an irrational fear, in the case of homophobia the word instead refers to an attitudinal disposition ranging from mild dislike to abhorrence of people who are sexually or romantically attracted to individuals of the same sex.
Homophobia is a culturally conditioned response to homosexualityand attitudes toward homosexuals vary widely across cultures and over time. Intolerance toward homosexual behaviour grew particularly in the Middle Ages, especially among the adherents of Christianity and Islam.
To understand the wider cultural impact of homophobia, awareness of the general societal consensus of the nature of homosexuality is necessary.
In Western cultures in the later 19th century, some psychologists began to view homosexuality as more than a temporary behaviour, understanding that it was immutable. As industrialization brought migration from rural to urban areas, the greater density of people in cities permitted same-sex attracted individuals to organize initially under the cloak of anonymitywhich ultimately led to greater visibility and the scientific study of homosexuality.
The term homosexuality was first used inand the research of Richard von Krafft-Ebing two decades later in Psychopathia Sexualis ; trans. The absence of a strong father in childhood not infrequently favours the occurrence of inversion.
The teaching of masculinity to boys and femininity to girls was and often remains falsely believed to be able to prevent children from becoming homosexual. Accordingly, heterosexuals and homosexuals wishing to be thought heterosexual are compelled to avoid associating with anything coded as homosexual.
This is accomplished through the repeated association with cultural codes of heterosexuality and disassociation from codes for homosexuality. Conversely, the suspicion that someone is homosexual often is cast upon whoever displays behaviour gender-coded appropriate for the opposite sex.
For men, competitive team sportsviolence, cars, beer, and an emotionless disposition have been associated with masculinity and thus heterosexualitywhile an appreciation of the arts, fine food, individual sports, and emotional expressionism has been associated with homosexuality.
This equation is reversed for women.
A homohysteric culture a term coined by American sociologist Eric Anderson can be created by the combination of an awareness of homosexuality and a high degree of homophobia. In a homohysteric culture, individuals are concerned with proving their heterosexuality because homosexuality is stigmatized.
A manifestation of this notion can be seen in Iranwhose president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejadsaid in a speech in the United States in that his country had no homosexuals.
Men can, for example, hold hands in many highly homophobic cultures because others do not perceive they can be homosexualwhile hand holding among men raises homosexual suspicion in the West. Contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality Western homophobia and homohysteria peaked in the s with the spread of AIDS.
The disease brought greater public awareness that homosexuals existed in every social institution, and the infectious nature of the disease further stigmatized homosexual men. It also ended, particularly in Western cultures, the presumption of heterosexuality.Mar 03, · Despite the great strides made both socially and legally in regards to how the LGBT community is accepted and treated, homophobia is still a problem all over the world.
The Psychology of Homosexuality SAME SEX MARRIAGE: Til Death Do Us Part?
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homophobia Psychology An irrationally negative attitude toward those with homosexual orientation, or toward becoming homosexual. See Closet, Gay-bashing, Heterosexism.
Cf . Psychology was one of the first disciplines to study homosexuality as a discrete phenomenon. Prior to and throughout most of the 20th century, common standard psychology viewed homosexuality in terms of pathological models as a mental illness.
That classification began to be tested in research, which hasn't produced strong empirical evidence regarding homosexuality as a disorder.
Peter Hegarty examines the main strands of research in lesbian and gay psychology that have emerged since the de-pathologizing of homosexuality in the s that followed from the recognition of homophobia and societal prejudice.