Censorship -- the control of the information and ideas circulated within a society -- has been a hallmark of dictatorships throughout history. In the 20th Century, censorship was achieved through the examination of books, plays, films, television and radio programs, news reports, and other forms of communication for the purpose of altering or suppressing ideas found to be objectionable or offensive. The rationales for censorship have varied, with some censors targeting material deemed to be indecent or obscene; heretical or blasphemous; or seditious or treasonous. Thus, ideas have been suppressed under the guise of protecting three basic social institutions:
Zeno also of Elea let his mind trap himself into thinking one could never get somewhere, because by going half-way there each time one would get closer but never arrive. Of course if one continually goes halfway, one will never get there; to get there one must go all the way.
However, Antisthenes credited Zeno with courageously challenging a tyrant by informing on the tyrant's friends. When interrogated by the tyrant, the only one he would implicate was the cursed tyrant himself. Zeno accused the bystanders of cowardice for not enduring what he was suffering.
Finally he bit off his tongue and spit it at the tyrant before he was beaten to death in a mortar. This affected the citizens so strongly that they later stoned the tyrant to death.
Melissus of Samos as a general defeated Athenians led by Pericles in a naval battle in BC; but his transcendental logic brilliantly pointed out that the infinite must be one, because if it were two, the two would limit each other and not be infinite.
He saw the universe as shifting between Love and Strife and composed of the elements of fire, air, water, and earth. With Love comes concord and joy; Aristotle interpreted Love as the cause of good and Strife as the cause of bad.
Aristotle also said that he had been a champion of freedom and was averse to all rules. Others said that Empedocles declined the kingship offered to him, because he preferred to live frugally.
When a tyrant insisted that all the guests drink wine or have it poured over their heads, Empedocles the next day accused the host and master of revels; this led to their condemnation and execution. Thus began his political career; it was argued that he must have been both wealthy and democratic, because he broke up the assembly of a thousand three years after it was set up.
Late in his life the descendants of his enemies opposed his return to Agrigentum; so he went to the Peloponnesus, where he died. As Pindar, in one of his many poems praising athletes, his second Olympian ode, saw a return to a heavenly kingdom so too did Empedocles describe the soul that realizes its divinity.
Empedocles gained renown for reviving a woman who had been unconscious for thirty days. Empedocles asked humanity, "Won't you stop ill-sounding bloodshed?
Don't you see that you are destroying each other in careless folly? He wished he had died before he began eating flesh.
Poetically he described how by an oracle of Necessity, anciently decreed by the eternal gods, a demi-god with long life, who has defiled his hands with bloodshed and strife or a false oath, must wander for thousands of seasons far from the blessed, being born through time in many mortal forms in one deadly life after another, pushed on by all the elements.
Such a fugitive from the gods who had trusted strife did Empedocles claim himself to be.
After many different lives such souls eventually come to earth as prophets, poets, healers, and princes to share with other immortals. Empedocles wrote that after much wandering he now went among the people as an immortal god honored and revered for his wisdom and healing powers.
Leucippus founded the atom theory of natural philosophy refined by Democritus, who also taught that the cheerful person eager for justice and right actions is strong and free of care, while those who do not care about justice and right find everything joyless and in memory are afraid and reproach themselves.
Happiness, said Democritus, is not found in gold or cattle but in the soul. For Democritus the goal of action is tranquillity, which is not the same as pleasure but a state of well-being in which the soul is calm, strong and undisturbed by fear, superstition, and other feelings.
Protagoras, the greatest of the sophists, studied with Democritus and lived BC. He is famous for the statement, "The person is the measure of all things.
He instituted debates and taught the art of arguing, including verbal quibbling.
In one of his books he stated that he did not know whether the gods existed or not; for this he was expelled from Athens, and his books were burned in the marketplace.
Socrates Socrates was born in BC in Athens and was the son of a stone-mason and a midwife. It was said that he did stone-work on the draped figures of the Graces on the Acropolis that was commissioned by Pericles. One account says that Crito took him out of a workshop to educate him because of the beauty of his soul.
Socrates admired the theory of Anaxagoras that the mind is infinite, self-ruled, and unmixed with anything but itself, controlling and causing all things. However, when he studied with Anaxagoras, he found that he introduced many physical causes into his explanations of nature. Such ideas challenged prevailing religious beliefs in Athens, and Anaxagoras was condemned to death; but his friend Pericles got him out of prison.
Socrates then became a student of Archelaus, who was said to have begun the speculation on ethical questions of law, justice, and goodness; Socrates improved on this so much that he was considered by Greeks the inventor of ethics. Some said that Socrates helped Euripides write his plays.
Socrates fought as a hoplite at Potidaea in BC and handed over his prize for valor to Alcibiades. He later served again at Amphipolis and at Delium. He invested his money and lived very simply, though he had three children, having taken a second wife to help Athens increase its population.
He never asked a fee from anyone, and when observing the products in the marketplace he would observe that he had no need for so many things.In The Republic, Plato plays around with the argument that it is better to be just than unjust. His vessel for showing this is through the forming of an “ideal” city.
In this hypothetical city he creates a censored educational system and abolishes the “typical” family structure in hopes that the society would be just. From unemployed teenagers to rock stars, an up-and-coming band from Arnhem Land has taken an unlikely path to kickstart their music career.
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Reed Massengill continues to gather images and historical data that enhance his own very fine books of photography of the male nude.
In UNCOVERED: RARE VINTAGE MALE NUDES he has gathered the works by ten brave men who had the courage to create images of the nude male before the censorship by the publishing firms changed following the Stonewall turnaround.
Censorship -- the control of the information and ideas circulated within a society -- has been a hallmark of dictatorships throughout history. Plato on censoring artists — a summary January 21, The Republic, Tragedy. In my Philosophy of Art course, we are discussing Plato’s philosophy of art, by means of selections from Statesman and Books 3 and 10 of The Republic, along The State’s censorship applies also to art.
8. So the State should allow only good art and.